Iqhinga elinzulu

Date:1 June 2018 Author: Brendon Petersen Tags:, , , ,


U-R50 million otshaliwe kumakhono okuqashwa ubeka i-BCX kanye namanye amabhizinisi ahlakaniphe ngokufanayo phambili emnothweni wakusasa.

Ngonyaka ka-2011, Ifemu eluleka ngezokuphatha esezingeni lomhlaba iMcKinsey & Company yalinganisa ukuthi i-US izoshoda ngabasebenzi okungenani abangu- 200 000 abanamakhono ajulile kwezokuhlaziya ngonyaka ka-2018. Lo mbiko ofanayo uphinde waqagula ukuthi kuzoswelakala abaphathi kanye nabahlaziyi abangu- 1,5-million abazi ukuthi ulwazi olukhulu lusetshenziswa kanjani. Ngonyaka ka-2015, i-US yayinoluhla lwemisebenzi eyizigidi eziyisikhombisa olwaludinga amakhono okuhlela ukusebenza kwamakhompuyutha, kanti lo msebenzi ukhula ngamaphesenti angu-12 kakhulu kuneminye. Umhlaziyi wezimakethe zamafemu ezingeni lomhlaba, uGartener ukhulise isidingo sososayensi bolwazi izikhathi ezintathu kunaleso sabasebenza ngezinombolo (statistics) kanye nabahlaziyi bezobuhlakani kwezamabhizinisi.

Ngenkathi i-Explore Data Science Academy (EDSA) ivula iminyango yayo ngokuphela konyaka ka-2017, iNingizimu Afrika yayivele isisele emuva.

Lokhu kulinganiswa kokushoda kwamakhono kwezesayensi yolwazi lomhlaba wonke kwakuvele sekulinganiselwe emsebenzini eyizigidi ezimbili zemisebenzi. Lo mdonsiswano ka-R50 million, ungovunyelwe yi-BCX (okuyingxenye yenkampani esebenza ngaphansi kuka-Telkom), uzoxhasa abasebenzi abangu-300 eminyakeni emithathu. Amakhulu amathathu awazwakali njengenombolo ephezulu yabasebenzi uma uqhathanisa nalezo zabazoswelakala, kodwa-ke kuzokwenza umehluko omkhulu ukuthi kuhlelwe ukuqashwa kokuzayo.

 

Uma ubungazi ukuthi isayensi yezolwazi ibaluleke kangakanani emphakathini, ingxoxo engumdonsiswano kaFacebook yakamuva ikunike ulwazi kulo mkhakha. Ngenkathi inkampani yezokuhlaziya i-Cambridge Analytica ikwazi ukuthola imininingwane yabangu-50 million abasebenzisa uFacebook, kwathatha umsebenzi wokuzimisela wedlanzana labasebenzi besayensi yolwazi abazimisele ukuhlonza labo ababebahlosile, okwabe sekungaba lula ukuhlasela ngokusebenzisa amaqhinga athize, konke kwenziwa ukuqhuba phambili i-ajenda yomkhankaso kaTrump. Osopolitiki ababephikisa bakhishwa ngenye yezindlela zomshoshaphansi zokugwazelwa ezifana nokuthi, banake izindaba lapho zixoxwa khona ezinkundleni zokusebenza kobuchwepheshe (online). Ngokwezinga eliphansi, umkhankaso wawuzobe usuqondiswa kulabo abangabavoti abaziwayo ngemiyalezo ebhaliwe.

Kwathatha abantu abangu-270 000 ukuthi bekwazi ukuba yingxenye yalolu hlelo olubizwa nge-thisisyourdigitallife, futhi lolu hlelo lwaba yimpumelelo ngenxa yokubabuthaka bemithetho yokutholakala kolwazi.

“Akusalungile ngokwanele ukuthi umuntu ofundile athi: ‘Angizange ngicabange ngakho,’” kusho uFortunate umfundi we-EDSA. Wafika ohlelweni ngenxa yokuthi uneziqu kwezobunjiniyela bezimboni (industrial-engineering degree), enesipiliyoni sonyaka kwezezimboni kanye nonyaka wokufundisa isiNgisi e-Thailand. Umbono wakhe wawubheke olwazini lwezimboni, kanye nasekubeni qotho ngendlela ehlelekile okuhambelana nakho.

“Ngaphandle uma unemali yokuthi uzikhiphe inyumbazana uhlale esiqhingini, ungaphathi ismartfoni noma ube nama-akhawnti ezinkundleni zokuxhumana, angeke uvimbe uhulumeni wakho noma inkampani ukuthi iwuthole umkhondo wakho. Noma bengalazi igama lakho kanye nemininingwane yakho, banalo ulwazi ngomuntu onjengawe. Basangakwazi ukukuhlonza noma bengalazi igama lakho. Angicabangi ukuthi lokho kunempilo, nakuba isizathu esangiletha emkhakheni wezobunjiniyela bezimboni kanye nesayensi yolwazi kungukuthola kabanzi ukuthi imishini kanye nobuchwepheshe buhlobana kanjani nabantu. Izindaba eziningi zobuchwepheshe sezibe yizibonelo lapho omunye umuntu ongakaze abalwe esithombeni esikhulu sokwenzekayo. Manje usungakhela i-Cape Town okuthile futhi kungahamba kuze kufike endaweni engafika kwaKhathu, kodwa futhi ngokufanayo, abantu abaningi abenza leso sisombululo bangathi abakaze bacabange ukuthi kungafinyelela kulelo banga. Abacabangi ngabantu ababandanyekayo ekusebenziseni ubuchwepheshe.’’

Uphatha indawo yakwaKhathu ngqo, ngoba yilapho u-Andries adabuka khona. Indlela yakhe ye-EDSA iqale ngeziqu zokuba ngumasta kwezolwazi lwabantu (bioinformatics). “Sengisebenzile ngolwazi, kodwa ngendlela ehlukile, ngendlela yokwazi ngempilo (biological point of view), kodwa ulwazi ulwazi,’’ echaza ngokuhamba komkhakha wakhe. “Okwamanje, sisebenza emkhakheni ohluke kakhulu kunalokho engiqeqeshelwe khona.

“Ngiyathemba ukuthi ngomuso ngingabuyela kwezokusebenza nge-biology. Ngicabanga ukuthi la makhono avame ngendlela yokuthi ungaya noma ikuphi usebenzise ulwazi lwakho kuwona. Yingakho nami ngilapha. Ngicabanga ukuthi ugqozi lwami lukakhulu kwezobuchwepheshe bamakhompyutha – i-biology kwakuyinto emnandi nje engathuka ngiyenza,’’ echaza.
“Ngaqala ngeziqu kwezofuzo (genetics) ngoba kuyingxenye yokuhlela kweze-biology. Ugqozi lwami ngezobuchwepheshe bekhompyutha lwakhula lapho. Yayimincane imikhakha engangingakhetha kuyo ngenkathi ngiqala kodwa manje isiminingi imikhakha.’’

I-EDSA yabekwa ngokusemthethweni ku-Okthoba ka-2017 kanti iklasi lika-2018 alenzanga okuningi ukuphonsela inselelo imicabango yezobuchwepheshe eNingizimu Afrika (IT industry). Izivakashi kulesi sikhungo semfundo zizomangala ukuthola owesilisa omhlophe onogqozi kwezekhompyutha onganyakaziseki. I-BCX ibeke u-R50 million yenzela abafundi abangu-300 ukuthi baqedele izifundo zonyaka kanye nohlelo lokuyoqeqeshelwa umsebenzi ezinkampanini eminyakeni emithathu. Izibalo ezilula zithi iklasi lika-2018 liqine ngezinga lika-100. Abafundi abangamashumi ayisishiyagalombili nesithupha ngabamnyama, abangu-42 abesifazane, abangu-54 bangaphansi kweminyaka engu-25 kanye nabangu-42 abanezitifiketi zikamatikuletsheni.

Ukubala kulabo bonke asebeshiwo nje singatomula uSharné, umfundi kamatikuletsheni wango-2017 ovela e-Mitchell’s Plain. “Ngangisenhlanganweni eyayifundisa amantombazane ukuqoqela ndawonye ulwazi, eyayibizwa ngokuthi i-Code for Cape Town. Ngakwenza lokho kusukela ebangeni lika-10,” echaza. “Uma bethola ngezinto ezinobuchwepheshe, batshela thina. Bangithumela ilinki ukuba ngifake isicelo futhi kwezwakala kuyinto engangithanda ukuyenza. Okokuqala kwakuthusa ngoba bonke abanye abantu babeneziqu kanye nokunye, kodwa manje sengiyaqonda.”

I-CODE4CT yinhlangano eyenza kahle esiza amantombazane ngokwethula amakhono okusebenza ngezobuchwepheshe bese ibasiza bathole namathuba ezimbonini ze-ICT (ubuchwepheshe bolwazi nokuxhumana) . Inhlangano ilungiselela ukuvula amathuba emisebenzi engu-75 000 ephathelene nokuqoqa ulwazi ngobuchwepheshe ukuthi itholakale ku-intanethi eNingizimu Afrika ngonyaka ka-2020, ngalo mthamo wale misebenzi okulinganiswa ukuthi ize ezweni elikhulelwa ngumnotho ngokushesha.

Isayensi yolwazi, isisusiwe ku-JavaScript uSharné abesejwayele ukuyisebenzisa ngoba esengumfundi eCODE4CT. Kodwa usenayo eyakhe endlini egcwele abantu abaneziqu ngenxa yolwazi lwakhe lokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe, isisekelo esiqinile somuntu ofundile osemusha olindele isikhala nje bese engena endaweni yokusebenza yesimanje. “Ngaphambi kokuba ngiye esikoleni sezinga eliphakeme, ngangazi ukuthi ngifuna ukwenza okuthile ngamakhompyutha, kodwa ngangingazi ukuthi ngenzeni. Uma ngifika emazingeni aphezulu emfundo, ngangifuna ukuba ngumsunguli wezinhlelo ezitholakala kwikhompyutha. Kodwa selokhu ngaba lapha, lapho wenza khona okungaphezulu kokusungula izinhlelo zokusebenza kwekhumpyutha, ngitholile ukuthi ziningi izingxenye kuyo. Ngiyathanda ukuxazulula izinkinga, kanti lo mkhakha ungisiza ukuqhamuka nesu bese ngizakhela ngokwami.’’

Okukhulu esidingweni esikhulayo sokuhlaziya ulwazi wukwanda kwezinto zamanje ze-intanethi (IoT). Ukukhishwa kwezinsiza kuletha ulwazi lapho lugcinwa khona bese lokho kudala ukuthi kube nolwazi oluningi oludinga ukuhlaziywa. Kodwa-ke abekho abantu abanele kulo mhlaba abafuna ukwenza lolu hlobo lomsebenzi onzima kangaka, ngakho-ke indima kasosayensi wolwazi ukujika ubuchwepheshe kanye nezinhlelo zabo ukuthi benze wona kanye lo msebenzi.

U-Andries udabuka endaweni ekhiqiza uwoyela eNyakatho yeKapa futhi uzizwa enethemba ngohlelo lobuchwepheshe ukuba luyofinyelela kwelakubo. “Sisendaweni enenhlanhla kakhulu emhlabeni njengamanje onakho konke ukuxhumana. IKhathu indawo enemayini, imayini kawoyela, ngakho-ke kuningi ukusetshenziswa kwesayensi yolwazi njengokugcinwa kwemigudu yokuhambisa uwoyela.  Kodwa, ngokwenani elivamile, sekwandile ukusetshenziswa kukamakhalekhukhwini othuthukisiwe (amasmartfoni).

“Angazi noma umjwayele yini uStrava,’’ eqhuba. “Bakhipha amabalazwe minyaka yonke kuwona wonke umunu ophatha ismartfoni, wonke umuntu usethubeni lokuba ehlezi egadiwe sonke isikhathi futhi lokho kuza nenzuzo yokuthi ukwazi ukulandelela isimo sakho sezempilo.’’ Yilapho sibambelela khona. Manje sesingasungula uhlelo oluthile, olulawula ukuthi umuntu ulala kanjani noma inhliziyo yakhe isebenza kanjani sihlanganise lonke lolo lwazi ndawonye bese sisiza abantu.

“Akhona amanye amasu okufunda ngemishini angasetshenziswa, njengokuthi uthathe isithombe sakho isikhathi nesikhathi bese uthola umbono ngokwezempilo. Ngicabanga ukuthi asisekho lesi sithiyo manje lapho abahlali basedolobheni elincane elikude bengeke bakwazi ukuthola ubuchwepheshe. Okwenzeka kumuntu oseKapa nalokho okwenzeka kumuntu osemakhaya manje kuyafana.”

Umsebenzi wokuqala abafundi base-EDSA abawenza ukusiza uhulumeni waseNtshonalanga Kapa umelane nenkinga yokuswelakala kwamanzi edolobheni. Njengendima yangokwedlule eyadlalwa ngomakhenikhi abakhulu (Popular Mechanics), ingxenye enkulu yomyalezo we-COCT’s (City of Cape Town) kwakuyikhwalithi lolwazi lobufakazi. U-Fortunate ucacisa ngokuthi amaqembu ajutshiwe asebenza kanjani ngokuhlaziya: “Ngeprojekthi yokugcina esaba nayo neqembu elimelele izinkinga zamanzi eKapa sasixoxa ukuthi izikhungo zabelana kanjani ngolwazi olukhona. Abanye abantu babethi angeke ukwazi ukwenza lokho ngoba kunepolitiki eningi, kodwa njengoba izwe lithuthuka ngokuxhumana, inkampani nenkampani kanye nososayensi wolwazi banendima yokuthi baqonde kusho ukuthini ukuthi, ‘Lo mphakathi usebenzisa amanzi amaningi, ‘noma, lo muntu wenza lokhu.’’

Leyo projekthi isiphelile manje, futhi i-EDSA bekumele yethulelele iDolobha uhla lwalokho ekutholile njengoba leli bhuku lihambile layogaywa. Kulokho okutholiwe ukuthi iCOCT ayibiki kahle ulwazi lwayo futhi lokho kwayibuyisela emuva iprojekthi. Ukusebenza nolwazi oluningi lonyaka lwenze izinsolo eziningi. Kolunye uhlangohti oluthokozisayo, indlela yokusebenza ye COCT beyingenalo ithemba ngo-Day Zero, kusukela ngosuku lokuqala kulandela inyanga ngemuva kwezinsuku ezazimisiwe – lena inkundla enhle kakhulu eyenzelwe ukuhlela.

Iqembu lika-Andries (abafundi bahlukana baba amaqembu ajutshiwe ngalinye beyisishiyagalombili) lathola ukuthi amanzi awafinyeleli emadanyini ngokwanele okuholela ezinkingeni eziningi, okubala isomiso kanye nokusabalala kwezitshalo zokufika.

UFortunate wathola ukuthi kunezinombolo zokubika zolwazi ezishodayo, okungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekufundweni kwazo. Waneliswa ukuncipha kokuvuza nendlela idolobha elenyuse ngayo izinga lokwehlisa lokho kulahlekelwa kuze kufike kumaphesenti angu-20, kodwa ujabule kancane ukuthi amaphesenti angu-20 kuphela alahlekayo ngokuvuza okungamanzi angamalitha ayi-10 umuntu eyedwa osukwini.

“Ilolo hlobo lolwazi oluhlezi laphaya, ongeke waluthola ngaphandle kokuthi ube nala makhono esiwafundayo manje,’’ kusho uFortunate. “Ulwazi onalo ngaphandle kwalolo ukuthi indawo ohlala kuyo (suburb) isebenzisa amanzi angaka futhi kungenzeka lelo nani alisho lutho kuwena, kodwa kukho konke njengokulethwa kanye nokudingeka uma kuhlanganiswa, kusitshela indaba enkulu ephoqayo.”

USharné ukhomba indlela okwabikwa ngayo ezindaweni zokuhlala. “Kweminye iminyaka, idolobha laba nezindawo zokuhlalai eziningi ngokweqile futhi kwenza kubenzima ukuqhathanisa ulwazi lonyaka nonyaka, ngoba kwesinye isikhathi izindawo zokuhlala ziyabalwa embikweni kwesinye isikhathi zingabalwa.”

Abafundi bakhule ngokwanele ukuqonda ukujula kwezinto abazidalulayo. Bayazi ngalabo abanamakhono afanayo kanye nemiphumela yomonakalo ongenzeka uma kukhona omunye onezinhloso ezimbi owenza ucwaningo olufanayo.

“Sidinga ukuwuqonda umthwalo esinawo,” kusho uFortunate.
“Uhulumeni waseNtshonalanga yeKapa unomthwalo wokuthi abe novalo kakhulu, ngoba abantu babakhethile ukuba babheke okuyinzuzo yezwe futhi nalokho okungabathusa, kanti ileyo ndlela-ke yokwenza. Kodwa-ke, sekwenziwe lokho, badinga ukulandelela okuphelele okubonakalayo, njengokubhekwa kwamamitha, ngaphandle kwalokho kushabalalisa izindlela zokwethusa ngoba ungakwazi ukuthola izinombolo bese ungavumelani nabo. Abantu abanalo ulwazi, iqhaza okumele balidlale ukukhuluma nabantu ngendlela ekhombisa ukukhula”.

Lokho kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekuthuthukiseni ikhono lokuhlaziya ulwazi: kungagqugquzela abantu abaningi ukuthi bahlaziye ulwazi ngobuchule. Ukuba nolwazi lwesimo yikhona ebesikudinga kakhulu njengabahlali, ngoba lolo lwazi luzosiza izinqumo esizithathayo. Ngaphandle kwalolo lwazi, uyisihambi nje endleleni, ulalela nje lokho otshelwa khona.

Enye yemibono i-EDSA eqhamuke nayo ngenkathi isebenza ngale phrojekthi ukuthi luqoqelwe ndawonye ulwazi “Uma, wena njengomnikazi wekhaya, ungazifundela wena amamitha akho bese uhambisa ohlelweni lobuchwepheshe (app) olusunguliwe, iDolobha lizobe seliba nolwazi olungcono ngokusetshenziswa kwamanzi bese kuba nesithombe esicacile ukuthi amanzi ashonaphi,” kuchaza uAndries.

Sesizwile ukuthi isizukulwane sanamuhla esisebenzisa ubuchwepheshe sizinaka kanjani kodwa ukuzinika isikhathi nabantu abasha baseNingizimu Afrika nokubaheha ekutheni behlulele ukuthi isizukulwane esidala sasizibuka kanjani izinto lokhu, kuveza intsha ecabanga ngokujulile.

“Kunzima ukuqhathanisa isizukulwane sanamuhla kanye nokuziphendulela kwaso kanye nalokho kwabazali bethu. Akuzwakali kahle, kodwa konikezwe amandla kulindeleke okungaphezulu. Izimpilo zethu zithembisa kakhulu kunalokho abazali kanye nokhokho bethu ababengakucabanga,” kusho u-Andries lapho ebuzwa ngokwahluleka kokhokho bakhe.
“Ngingangena kumakhelekhukhwini wami ngibone isiminyaminya emgwaqeni nokuthi kuzongithatha isikhathi eside ukushayela imoto kunokuhamba ngezinyawo. Lokho abazali bami babengakwazi ukukwenza.

“Ngokwami, ngizimisele ukukunxephezelela konke lokho. Kumele uqaphele ungakujabuleli ukuthi izikhathi ziyashintsha, ezikhathini zakudala, wawungakwazi ukuphuma kwakho engekho owayefuna ukukubulala; kuhluke kakhulu ukuthi ubulawele ukuba nendawo yakho. Sidinga ukushintsha indlela yokwenza manje.”

Ithimba le-EDSA liyiqembu labahlaziyi bolwazi bakudala, abahlela ukusebenza kobuchwepheshe kanye nabahlaziyi bamabhizinisi abafuna ukubuyisela emphakathini. UShaun Dippnall uyena msunguli osesikhundleli esikhulu, futhi ufike kwiphrojekthi ephuma eNyuvesi yaKwaZulu-Natali, lapho ayefundisa khona ukuhlaziya ulwazi, une-CV enhle ebala u-Old Mutual njengezinye izindawo aphatha khona isikhundla esiphezulu.

“Kuhamba ngendlela enobuhlakani. Siqale nabangu-100 babili kuphela asebehambile bathola imisebenzi emihle. Umfutho muhle kakhulu. Inkomba yethu yokusebenza okuyi-KPI (key performance indicator) yinani labantwana abaselebhu ngoLwesihlanu ebusuku; indlela enkulu yokuzimbandakanya. Futhi kuhlezi kugcwele njalo ngoLwesihlanu ngemuva kwehora lesi-5 ntambama,” kusho uShaun. “Iprojekthi yokubhekelela izinkinga zamanzi eKapa (Cape water crisis project) yalethwa futhi ibukeka kahle, nemiphumela emihle kanye nemihlahlandlela.”

Amathimba angamashumi amabili ethule ucwaningo lwawo ngephrojekthi yezinkinga zamanzi kanye nethimba labaphethe lahlanganisa lokho lenza isethulo esisodwa esizoyiswa eDolobheni. Inselelo elandelayo yabafundi ukuthi bahlale phezu kodaba ngokufunda imishini, bese beya ngqo oqeqeshweni lwephrojekthi yamasonto ayisithupha ekupheleni kukaJulayi. Ngemuva kwalokho uqeqesho lomsebenzi lwezinyanga ezintathu.

“Simatasa sikhuluma namabhizinisi aseNingizimu Afrika ukuthi baxhase iphrojekthi lapho bengathatha abafundi abayishumi baxazulule inkinga noma benze iphrojekthi endaweni yabo yokusebenza. Ngaleyo ndlela, kunethemba eliqinile lokuthi abafundi bangahlaba umxhwele bethole umsebenzi.”

Ingxenye eyindida ukuba nesiqiniseko samathuba okuqashwa akusasa amataniswa namakhono adingwa ngamabhizinisi aseNingizimu Afrika. Lokho iyona nkinga zonke izimboni ezikhulayo ezidinga ukukhuluma ngayo.

Kodwa lowo ngunyaka owodwa osuphelile. Unyaka wesibili uqala ukungena ngoJulayi kanti isifundo sezemishini sesiyasebenza kakhulu. “Sithola ama-imeyli njalo kubuzwa ukuthi zifakwa nini izicelo zonyaka ka-2019,” kusho uShaun. I-EDSA ilinganisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezu kuka-10 000 kanti umqondo abanawo ukuthola izinkampani eziningi ezizoxhasa abafundi babo abaningi, ngethemba lokuthola elinye ikhulu bakhulise uhlelo lokufunda naseGoli.

“Besilokhu siqinisa izinga futhi abantu abaningi bazizwele kungaphezu kokwenza,” echaza ngekharikhulamu. “Ngaphakathi kulokho bekumele sihlukanise amaqembu sibanike ukuhlela kokusebenza kobuchwepheshe kakhulu ngoba lokho kunzima. Kunabafundi abangu-20 abanikezwa abasebenzi bokubalekelela okungenani inyanga yonke. Olunye ushitsho kwakumele behlukanise izikhathi zibezinde ngamasonto amane esikhundleni samathathu, ukuze bengagcini sebekhathele kakhulu.”

I-EDSA iwuhlelo olusungulwe ngobuchule olunemiphumela ebonakalayo kwenye yezimakethe zomsebenzi ezinhle njengamanje. Kahle hle yikuphi abafundi abafuna kukuzuza khona, babona imisebenzi yabo ikuphi ngale kalokhu kuqeqeshwa?

USharné unamaqhinga ababili engqondweni yakhe uma eqeda e-EDSA. “Ukuthi ngiye enyuvesi ngiyofunda , noma ngisebenze njengososayensi wolwazi enkampanini. Kodwa lokho ngokwami ukuthi ngikucabange kulesi sikhathi, ngoba konke kuncike ekutheni iyiphi inkampani engingena kuyo, nokuthi ngobani. Ngifuna nokwakha izinto ngoba kuyabasiza kakhulu abantu. Ngangiyinxenye yephrojekthi iminyaka emibili eyedlule lokho kusizakale khona abantu abakhulelwe emphakathini ukuthi bathole ukuthi bazobeletha nini.”

U-Andries ubeke ihlo entweni ethize ethokozisayo: isikhundla ku-Google DeepMind. “Ngingathanda ukuya endaweni ekahle yokufunda imishini, ngenze imithetho yokuxazulula izinombolo (algorithms).   Okwamanje, sisalapho siyisebenzisa khona siyiqonde, kodwa ngifuna ukuba kwenye ingxenye yayo ngiyisungule.”

UFortunate ufuna ukusiza ngokukhiqizwa kokudla kwabantu abaphila impilo ephansi kanye nokuthuthukisa umphakathi. Ithemba kulokhu, yikuthi yonke le mizamo izoveza izithelo nokuthi iNingizimu Afrika ingaba indawo yokusungula ososayensi bolwazi abaletha ushintsho.

 

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