Nasa spacecraft images offer sharper views of Apollo landing sites

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Video
  • The paths left by astronauts Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell on both Apollo 14 moon walks are visible in this image. (At the end of the second moon walk, Shepard famously hit two golf balls.) The descent stage of the lunar module Antares is also visible. Image credit: Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Centre/ASU
  • This LRO image of the Apollo 17 landing site was released yesterday. Compare it to image 3, which is an LRO image released in 2009. LRO was moved into a lower orbit to capture the new image. The images do not line up perfectly because of differences in lighting conditions, angle of the LRO Camera, and other variables. Image brightness and contrast have been altered to highlight surface details. Image credit: Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center/ASU
  • This image is a zoom-in on an LRO image of the Apollo 17 landing site, which was released in 2009. Compare it to image 2, which was released yesterday. LRO was moved into a lower orbit to capture the new image. The images do not line up perfectly because of differences in lighting conditions, angle of the LRO Camera, and other variables. Image brightness and contrast have been altered to highlight surface details. Image credit: Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center/ASU
  • This LRO image of the Apollo 12 landing site was released yesterday. Compare it to image 5, which is an LRO image released in 2009. LRO was moved into a lower orbit to capture the new image. The images do not line up perfectly because of differences in lighting conditions, angle of the LRO Camera, and other variables. Image brightness and contrast have been altered to highlight surface details. Image credit: Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Centre/ASU
  • This image is a zoom-in on an LRO image of the Apollo 12 landing site, which was released in 2009. Compare it to image 4, which was released yesterday. LRO was moved into a lower orbit to capture the new image. The images do not line up perfectly because of differences in lighting conditions, angle of the LRO Camera, and other variables. Image brightness and contrast have been altered to highlight surface details. Image credit: Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center/ASU
  • Apollo 12, 14 and 17 landing sites
Date:7 September 2011 Tags:, , , , , , ,

Nasa’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) captured the sharpest images ever taken from space of the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 landing sites. Images show the twists and turns of the paths made when the astronauts explored the lunar surface.

At the Apollo 17 site, the tracks laid down by the lunar rover are clearly visible, along with the last foot trails left on the Moon. The images also show where the astronauts placed some of the scientific instruments that provided the first insight into the moon’s environment and interior.

“We can retrace the astronauts’ steps with greater clarity to see where they took lunar samples,” said Noah Petro, a lunar geologist at Nasa’s Goddard Space Flight Centre, who is a member of the LRO project science team.

All three images show distinct trails left in the Moon’s thin soil when the astronauts exited the lunar modules and explored on foot.The paths left by astronauts Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell on both Apollo 14 moon walks are visible in this image. (At the end of the second moon walk, Shepard famously hit two golf balls.) In the Apollo 17 image, the foot trails, including the last path made on the Moon by humans, are easily distinguished from the dual tracks left by the lunar rover, which remains parked east of the lander.

“The new low-altitude Narrow Angle Camera images sharpen our view of the Moon’s surface,” said Arizona State University researcher Mark Robinson, principal investigator for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). “A great example is the sharpness of the rover tracks at the Apollo 17 site. In previous images the rover tracks were visible, but now they are sharp parallel lines on the surface.”

At each site, trails also run to the west of the landers, where the astronauts placed the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to monitor the Moon’s environment and interior.

This equipment was a key part of every Apollo mission. It provided the first insights into the Moon’s internal structure, measurements of the lunar surface pressure and the composition of its atmosphere. Apollo 11 carried a simpler version of the science package.

One of the details that shows up is a bright L-shape in the Apollo 12 image. It marks the locations of cables running from ALSEP’s central station to two of its instruments. Although the cables are much too small for direct viewing, they show up because they reflect light very well.

The higher resolution of these images is possible because of adjustments made to LRO’s orbit, which is slightly oval-shaped or elliptical. “Without changing the average altitude, we made the orbit more elliptical, so the lowest part of the orbit is on the sunlit side of the Moon,” said Goddard’s John Keller, deputy LRO project scientist. “This put LRO in a perfect position to take these new pictures of the surface.”

The manoeuvre lowered LRO from its usual altitude of approximately 50 km to an altitude that dipped as low as nearly 21 km as it passed over the Moon’s surface. The spacecraft has remained in this orbit for 28 days, long enough for the Moon to completely rotate. This allows full coverage of the surface by LROC’s Wide Angle Camera. The cycle ended yesterday when the spacecraft returned to its 50-km orbit.

“These images remind us of our fantastic Apollo history and beckon us to continue to move forward in exploration of our solar system,” said Jim Green, director of the Planetary Science Division at Nasa Headquarters in Washington.

LRO was built and managed by Goddard. Initial research was funded by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at Nasa Headquarters. In September 2010, after a one-year successful exploration mission, the mission turned its attention from exploration objectives to scientific research in Nasa’s Science Mission Directorate.

Nasa Goddard’s Dr Noah Petro discusses the significance of the new Apollo images from LRO (Video credit: Chris Smith, Nasa’s Goddard Space Flight Centre):

  • John Clerk

    eksteen23 is one of the idiots who watched the “expose'” where “all was revealed” and key people (Kissinger included) ‘admitted’ faking the moon landings – what eksteen and similar idiots failed to do was to watch the video to the end where “April Fool” was displayed – and it was also aired on April 1.