These four simulations show the transition zone from the umbra (inner region) at right in each image to the penumbra (outer region) at left for a single sunspot. The sunspot's complex processes are modelled in 3D, giving scientists their first glimpse below the visible surface.
* t (elapsed time) is shown in minutes
* 5 Mm: length of bar = 5 000 km
Technical data: Quantities shown are in the photosphere. Top left: Vertical magnetic field component (white: upward, black: downward); Top right: Field inclination (black: vertical, white: horizontal); Bottom left:...