I can’t just quit you, technology

Date:15 June 2012 Tags:, , ,

WHY PEOPLE ARE TAKING A BREAK FROM TECHNOLOGY – AND WHY IT’S GOOD FOR YOUR BRAIN, YOUR HEALTH AND YOUR RELATIONSHIPS.
BY AMY KLEIN

SCIENCE FICTION ONCE PREDICTED that robots and machines would take over our lives. Considering our reliance on our gadgets, that might not be too far from the truth. How many times a day do you check your cellphone? Your Facebook page? Your Twitter feed? How many texts do you send and receive each day? Now tally up the time you spend in front of screens, from your computer to your iPad to your TV, and you’ll see how technology is running – and maybe even ruining – your life.

Some people expressed their misgivings by joining in the National Day of Unplugging, which took place a few months ago. Founded by the Sabbath Manifesto, a creative project designed to slow down lives in an increasingly hectic world, the unplugging was meant to mimic the religious sabbath, where work ceases so you can become closer to your family, friends and spiritual life. Others are trying “technology fasts” – sporadic breaks at different times from various technologies.

Here are eight reasons why it’s good to take a tech break:

1. Technology can cause stress
“The purpose of almost all technology is to do things faster, and often better, than we humans can,” writes Jim Calloway, co-editor of Winning Alternatives to the Billable Hour: Strategies That Work. Although the promise of technology used to be that it would lighten our load, it often increases it – by giving us more time, we now have more time to work. “We can, and therefore do, run at a faster pace. And if you let technology set your pace, it will make you run faster and faster.”

2. Technology can ruin your health
Researchers who surveyed over 4 000 American high school students last year found that excessive texting and social networking – sending 120 text messages or more during a school day, and using online social networking sites for at least three hours per school day – was linked to a range of poor health behaviours, including smoking, drinking, use of drugs and sexual activity. These were the results of a study led by Dr Scott Frank, director of the Master of Public Health programme at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine.

Dr Frank presented the ”findings at the 138th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Public Health Association in November 2010. In addition to the aforementioned, “hyper-texting” and social networking was also linked to perceived stress, having suicidal thoughts, obesity, disordered eating behaviour, missing school due to illness, having lower self-rated health, feeling unsafe at school, not getting enough sleep, and parental permissiveness.

3. Technology can rewire our brains
“We know that the brain’s neural circuitry responds every moment to whatever sensory input it gets and that the many hours people spend in front of the computer – doing various activities, including trolling the Internet, exchanging e-mail, video conferencing, IM’ing and e-shopping – expose their brains to constant digital stimulation,” write Dr Gary Small and Gigi Voran in iBrain: Surviving the Technological Alteration of the Modern Mind (HarperCollins, 2009).

Dr Small and his UCLA research team wanted to look at the impact this extended screen time was having on the brain’s neural circuitry, how quickly it could build up new pathways, and whether or not they could observe and measure these changes as they occurred. Using fMRIs, they compared computer users to “naive” (non-computer) users and found that after Œ ve hours on the Internet, the naive subjects had already rewired their brains.

“This particular area of the brain controls our ability to make decisions and integrate complex information. It also controls our mental process of integrating sensations and thoughts, as well as working memory, which is our ability to keep information in mind for a very short time – just long enough to manage an Internet search task or dial a phone number after getting it from directory assistance.”

4. Technology can ruin our attention span
Small and Voran also write in iBrain that the high-tech revolution has put us into what software executive Linda Stone calls “continuous partial attention”, which means continually staying busy – “keeping tabs on everything while never truly focusing on anything”. This differs from multi-tasking, where there’s a purpose for each task and we’re trying to improve our productivity and Œefficiency.

“When paying continuous partial attention, people may place their brains in a heightened state of stress. They no longer have time to re’flect, contemplate or make thoughtful decisions. Instead, they exist in a sense of constant crisis… on alert for a new contact or bit of exciting news or information at any moment.”

According to Small and Voran, once people get used to this state, they tend to thrive on perpetual connectivity. Eventually, they say, the endless hours of unrelenting digital connectivity can create a “unique type of brain strain”. Many people who have been working on the Internet for several hours without a break report making frequent errors in their work. Upon signing off, they notice feeling spaced out, fatigued, irritable and distracted, as if they are in a “digital fog”. They call this a techno-brain burnout.

5. Technology can hinder creativity
In the book, Defeating the 8 Demons of Distraction: Proven Strategies to Increase Productivity and Decrease Stress, Dr Geraldine Markel gives an example of how technology ruins the creative process – and the work process: “Steve is extremely bright and creative. He enjoys surŒfing the Internet and discovering new ideas. As a word or concept pops into his mind, his Œfingers tap him into uncharted territory. Four or more hours can ’fly by.

“Unfortunately, these Internet explorations distract him from completing his projects. On the one hand, Steve is an ‘idea
generator’ at a public relations Œ firm, so he needs to keep abreast of new developments. On the other hand, he still has to complete his projects.” When not controlled, she writes, Steve’s “curiosity” becomes a hindrance and erodes his performance and potential.

6. Technology can interrupt romance, friendship and parenting
Do you really need a scientiŒfic study to prove this? Just check out the look on your child/spouse/friend or colleague’s face when you sneak a look at your BlackBerry while they’re talking to you. “Research and various studies have demonstrated the importance of attachment to other people on how well we cope with life, feel safe in relationships, and manage stress,” writes John O’Neill, director of addiction services at the Menninger Clinic in Houston, in Time to Disconnect?

“Technology overload damages relationships, but is it an addiction?” (Highlights of the American Bar Association, Winter 2008). “Furthermore, we know that children who suffer from attachment disorders struggle with trust, superŒficial relationships, poor peer relationships, lying, fear of intimacy, shame and feeling alone.” O’Neill gives an example of a father and son at a baseball game, where the father is too busy talking on his cellphone to notice his son’s attempt at catching a home run.

“What could have been a signiŒficant bonding moment was derailed by the father’s inability to disconnect from technology,” he writes. “Observing people on a daily basis, it is easy to recognise how lost we have become in our own worlds.Talking on the phone, returning messages, playing games, listening to music on headphones that block out the world and other examples illustrate how easy it is to escape.”

7. Technology can be isolating
“Mobile phones, computers and other such tools enable us to communicate so easily, they trick us into believing that we will be able to satisfy our communication needs when, at best, they are able to give us only a small portion of what we actually need,” writes Harley Hahn, who coined the phrase “Island Syndrome” to deŒfine our state of isolation and dependence on technology today.

Technology continually seduces us by promising to give us what we want, and we don’t understand what is happening, he
says. “This is why so many people keep phoning, text messaging, instant messaging and e-mailing one another without ever feeling satisŒfied enough to stop: it is a combination of seductive technology, bad communication habits, and ignorance of our real needs. We are betrayed continually by a con’fluence of forces that promise to fulŒfil us without  actually doing so.”

8. Technology can be an addiction
According to a phone survey conducted by Stanford University back in 2006 – before the crazed Twitterverse! – more than one in eight adults in the United States showed signs of being addicted to the Internet. “Addicts’ showed signs of  compulsive Internet use, habitually checking e-mail, Web sites and chat rooms. More than 8 per cent of the 2 513 respondents said they hid their use from partners.

“We often focus on how wonderful the Internet is, how simple and efŒ cient it can make things,” elaborated lead author Dr
Elias Aboujaoude, clinical assistant professor in psychiatry and behavioural sciences and director of Stanford’s Impulse Control Disorders Clinic. “But we need to consider the fact that it creates real problems for a subset of people.”

In the end, however, technology is not evil; like anything else, it must be used in moderation. As O’Neill writes: “Technology has enormous beneŒfits that assist us on a daily basis. Cellphones help us keep up with family, friends and business, and assist us in an emergency. The Internet is a wonderful resource Œfilled with knowledge and endless learning opportunities. Evidence shows that video games can improve various motor skills and problem-solving skills. The hope is that we can apply technology with a healthy balance and set limits.”

 First published in Brain World.
‘Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.’ – Arthur C Clarke