• Icebo eliKhulu

    Date:28 May 2018 Author: Lindsey Schutters Tags:, , , ,

    Inzaliso-mali engama-R50-million kwizakhono eziqeshisayo zibeka i-BCX namanye amashishini afanayo ngobukrelekrele enkcochoyini kuqoqosho lwangomso

    Ngonyaka ka-2011, ifem yabacebisi bamazwe ngamazwe phesheya i-McKinsey & Company yaqikelela ukuba i-US ingajongana nokudingeka kwabasebenzi abamalunga nama-200 000 abanezakhono ezinzulu zokuhlela ngonyaka ka-2018. Kwale ngxelo inye yaxela kwangaphambili ngokudingeka koomanejala abali-1,5-million nabacaluli abakwaziyo ukusebenzisa idata eninzi ngendlela efanelekileyo. Ngonyaka ka-2015, i-US ibinoludwe lwemisebenzi ezizigidi ezisixhenxe ezifuna iinkqubo zekhompyutha okanye izakhono jikelele zokukhowuda, kwaye elo shishini lemisebenzi luyakhula nge-12 ekhulwini yepesenti ngokukhawuleza okukhulu. Ifem yohlahlelo lorhwebo kwizizwe ngezizwe phesheya i-Gartner ibeka ukukhula kulibango lweenzululwazi zedata kangangamatyeli amathathu abaqokeleli bamanani nabacaluli bobukrelekrele bamashishini.

    Ngexa i-Explore Data Science Academy (EDSA) ivula amasango ayo ekupheleni konyaka ka-2017, uMzantsi Afrika wawusele ungemva kweli gophe.

    Uqikelelo lokunqongophala kwezakhono zedata kwihlabathi jikelele lwalusele luqikelelwa kwimisebenzi ezizigidi ezibini. Ibhokisi yemfazwe engama-R50-million, isibonelelo se-BCX (Telkom’s enterprise arm), siya kuxhasa abagqatswa abangama-300 kwiminyaka emithathu. Amakhulu amathathu awavakali njengenani elikhulu kakhulu labagqatswa xa kucingwa ngamanani adingekayo, kodwa eneneni enza okukhulu kwingqesho.

    Ukuba ubungayazi indlela eyenze ukubaluleka kobunzululwazi bedata kwimimandla, impikiswano yakutshanje ku-Facebook mhlawumbi ikulumkisile wade wafikelela kweli candelo lezifundo. Ngexa i-Cambridge Analytica ifumana ufikelelo kwizigidi ezingama-50 zedata yabasebenzisi baka-Facebook, ibe ngumsebenzi weenzululwazi ezimbalwa ezizinikezeleyo kumsebenzi wazo ekuphawuleni iithagethi, nezinokuthi zihlaselwe kusetyenziswa izicwangciso-qhinga ezohlukeneyo, konke ikukwandisa i-ajenda yephulo lika-Trump. Amaqela aphikisayo ezopolitiko ahlazwa ngeendlela zokunyoba ezikhoyo ezifana, umzekelo, ukwenza iqhinga apho banokuthatha inxaxheba ekuthandaneni onlayini. Kumgangatho ophantsi, iphulo belijolisa kubavoti abafanelekileyo nemiyalezo eyenzelwe bona.

    Okwathatha koku yayingabantu abangama-270 000 abangenelele kwisicelo esaziwa njenge-thisisyourdigitallife, kwaye eli thuba lalifanelekile ngenxa yekroba kwimigaqo-nkqubo yofikelelo kwidata.

    “Akusalunganga ngokwaneleyo emntwini ofundileyo ukuthi: ‘Andiciyinganga,’” utshilo umfundi we-EDSA uFortunate. Ufike kule nkqubo nge-industrial-engineering degree, amava oshishino alixabiso lonyaka kwakunye nonyaka wokufundisa isiNgesi e-Thailand. Inkcazo yakhe ijolise kushishino lwedata, kwakunye noxanduva olusisigxina oluhamba nayo.

    “Ngaphandle kokuba unayo imali yokuzikhupha uze uhlale esiqithini esincinci futhi ungaphathi ifowuni okanye ube nee-akhawunti kumaqonga onxibelelwano, awukwazi ukumisa urhulumente wakho okanye inkampani yakho ekukulandeleni. Nokuba abalazi igama lakho okanye iinkcukacha ezizezakho, basenayo idata ngomntu ofana nawe. Bangakuphawula ngaphandle kokwazi igama lakho. Andiqondi ukuba yimpilo leyo, nangona isizathu esandenza ndangena kubunjineli ngoshishino nobunzululwazi ngedata ikukufumana ngakumbi ngendlela oomatshini okanye iinkqubo ezithi zinxulumane nabantu. Uninzi lwamabali angobuchwepheshe ibiyimizekelo apho omnye umntu ethe akaqatshelwa kumfanekiso omkhulu wezinto. Ngoku ungakha okuthile kwaseKapa kwaye kungahamba kufikelele kwindawo enjenge-Kathu, kodwa ngokufunayo, abantu abaninzi abakhe eso sisombululo bangathi bebengazi ukuba ingafikelela kude kangaka. Abacingi ngabantu abathatha inxaxheba ekusebenziseni iinkqubo.”

    Uphawule i-Kathu ngokukodwa kuba kulapho omnye wabafundi ogama lingu-Andries wayesuka khona. Indlela yakhe ye-EDSA yaqala nge-MA kwi-Bioinformatics. “Bendisebenza ngedata kodwa kuluvo olwahluke kakhulu kwimbono yebhayoloji, kodwa ke idata yidata,” ucacise watsho ngendlela yakhe yemfundo. “Ngokwangoku, sisebenza kwindawo eyohluke kakhulu kwinto endiqeqeshelwe yona.

    “Ndiyathemba ukuba kwixesha elizayo ndingabuyela kwibhayoloji. Ndicinga ukuba izakhono azijolisanga kwinto enye kangangokuba ungaya naphina ufike usebenzise ulwazi lwakho. Yiyo lento ndilapha. Ndicinga ukuba endkuthandayo ikakhulu kukwicala lobunzululwazi ngekhompyutha – ibhayoloji ifana neprojekthi emnandi yabucala endiyithandayo ukuthi nyebelele kuyo,” utshilo.
    “Ndiqala ngemfundo enomsila kwi-Genetics kuba iyinkqubo yebhayoloji. Ukuthanda kwam ubunzululwazi ngekhompyutha kukhule ngeli xesha. Kwakukho izifundo ezimbalwa kakhulu onokukhetha kuzo ngexesha lokuqalisa kwam, kodwa ngoku konke kukhula kakuhle.”

    I-EDSA yaqaliswa ngenyanga ka-Oktobha 2017 yaze iklasi yonyaka ka-2018 ayenza okukhulu ekuceleni umngeni kwingqiqo yoshishino lwe-IT eMzantsi Afrika. Abatyeleli kwi-akhademi baya kothuka ukufumanisa ukunqongophala okukrokrisayo kwendoda emhlophe ethanda ikhompyutha. I-BCX ibeke ama-R50 million yabagqatswa abangama-300 ekubeni bagqibe izifundo zamahala zonyaka ne-internship kwiminyaka emithathu. I-arithmetic elula ibonisa ukuba iklasi ka-2018 yomelele nge-100. Amashumi asibhozo anesithandathu abafundi abekho mhlophe, ama-42 ngamabhinqa, ama-54 angaphantsi kweminyaka engama-25 aze ama-42 abe nesiqinisekiso sematriki.

    Obeke uphawu kuzo zonke iibhokisi ezichazwe ngasentla ngu-Sharné, umfundi ophumelele imatriki ngonyaka ka-2017 wase-Mitchell’s Plain. “Ndandisebenza kumbutho ofundisa ukukhowuda samantombazana, esaziwa njenge-Code for Cape Town. Ndenza oko ndade ndafikelela ku-Grade 10,” utshilo. “Bathe bakufumanisa ngezinto ezinxulumene nobuchwepheshe, basixelela. Bandithumelela ilinki yoqhagamshelwano ukuze ndifake isicelo kwaye oko kwavakala njengento endifuna ukuyenza. Ekuqaleni ndandisoyika kuba bonke abanye abantu babenemfundo enomsila nezinye izinto, kodwa nam ndiyayifumana ngoku. Kwafuneka ndifunde yonke into.”

    I-CODE4CT linyathelo elaziwa ngokubanzi nelazisa amantombazana kwizakhono ezisisiseko zokwakha iwebhu futhi libabonise amathuba kushishino lwe-ICT (information and communication technologies). Umbutho ngokwangoku ucinga ngemisebenzi engama-75 000 enxulumene nokukhowuda ukuba ifike onlayini eMzantsi Afrika ngonyaka ka-2020, kunye nalo misebenzi emikhulu ejolise ekufikeni kumacandelo ezoqoqosho akhula ngokukhawuleza okukhulu kwilizwe lethu.

    Ubunzululwazi ngedata, kengoko, bususelwe kude kwi-JavaScript uSharné ebeyiqhelile ngexesha engumfundi we-CODE4CT. Kodwa ebeneyakhe kwigumbi eligcwele abantu abanemfundo enomsila ngenxa yokwazi kwakhe izakhono zekhompyutha, isiseko esiluqilima kuye nawuphina umntu osakhulayo ekubekeni unyawo lwakhe angene kwimisebenzi yala maxesha esiphila kuwo.

    “Ngaphambi kokuba ndiye kwisikolo samabanga aphakamileyo, bendisazi ukuba ndifuna ukwenza okuthile okuneekhompyutha, kodwa ndandigazi ukuba yintoni leyo. Xa ndifika kwisikolo samabanga aphakamileyo, bendifuna ukuba ngumenzi weenkqubo zekhompyutha (programmer). Kodwa oko ndafika apha, apho wenza okungaphezulu kwe-programming, ndifumanise ukuba kuninzi okungqinelana noku. Ndiyakuthanda ukusombulula iingxaki, kwaye ezi zifundo zindinika ithuba lokuba ndize noluvo ndize ndilwakhe ngokunokwam.”

    Umba omkhulu kwibango elikhulayo lohlahlelo lwedata kukwanda kwe-Internet yezinto yangoku (IoT). Ukusasazwa ngokubanzi kweziva-luvo nezithi rhoqo zizise ulwazi kubanikezeli abaphakathi kwiintaba zedata ekufuneka zilungisiwe. Kodwa akukho bantu baninzi kwiplanethi bokwenza umsebenzi onjalo, kengoko indima yeenzululwazi zedata iguquka ibe kukwazisa iinkqubo ezinokuthi ngokulula zijongane nalo misebenzi.

    U-Andries usuka kwilizwe eline-iron-ore kuMntla-Kapa kwaye uziva enethemba ngokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe kwidolophu yakowabo. “Sikwisikhundla sethamsanqa elikhulu kwihlabathi ngokwangoku ngenxa yokuthungelana kwento yonke. I-Kathu yidolophu yemigodi, ene-iron ore, ken

    goko kuninzi ukusetyenziswa kobunzululwazi bedata, obunjengokombiwa kwe-ore okanye iindlela zokuyihambisa. Kodwa, kuluntu jikelele, kukho abantu abaninzi abaneefowuni ezinento yonke.

     

    “Andazi nokuba uyayazi na i-Strava,” uqhubeke wabuza. “Bavelisa iimephu zobushushu rhoqo ngonyaka. Njengoko wonke umntu enefowuni enento yonke, wonke umntu uyakwazi ukubekwa iliso ngalo lonke ixesha kwaye oko kuyinzuzo njengendlela yokujonga impilo yakho. Kulapho sikudibanisayo oku. Ngoku singabhala i-app elula, sibeke iliso kwindlela umntu alala ngayo okanye indlela intliziyo yakhe esebenza ngayo, size siyibeke yonke lodata endaweni enye futhi sincede abantu.

     

    “Kukho nobunye ubuchule bokufunda ngomatshini obunokuthi buzalisekiswe, njengokuthatha ifoto yakho uze ufumane uluvo lonyango. Ndicinga ukuba akukho sithintelo konke-konke apho abahlali bedolophana encinci ekude bangangafikeleli kubuchwepheshe. Okwenzeka emntwini oseKapa xa kuthelekiswa nomntu ohlala emaphandleni ngoku kuyafana.”

    Umsebenzi wokuqala wabafundi be-EDSA abathe baboniswa wona yaba kukunceda urhulumente weNtshona Koloni ekujonganeni nokunqongophala kwamanzi kwesixeko. Njengoko ooMakhenikhi boDumo babenzile kwiminyaka eyadlulayo, inxenye yemiyalezo ye-COCT (iSixeko saseKapa) yayi ngumgangatho wesalathisi sedata yabo. UFortunate unike amagqabantshintshi ngendlela igqiza lakhe lomsebenzi elajongana ngayo nohlahlelo: “Kwiprojekthi yokugqibela esasinayo – kwintlekele yamanzi eKapa – sasixosa ngendlela amaziko akhethe ngayo ukwabelana ngedata ekhoyo. Abanye abantu babesithi awukwazi ukukwenza oko kuba inobupolitiki, kodwa njengoko ihlabathi lishukumela kufutshane noqhagamshelwano olwandileyo, inkampani nganye nenzululwazi yedata banoxanduva lokuqonda impembelelo ekhoyo ngokuthi, ‘Lo mmandla woluntu usebenzisa amanzi amaninzi,’ okanye, ‘Lo mntu wenza oku.’”

    Loo projekthi ngoku igqityiwe kwaye i-EDSA bekumele ukuba igqithise ekufumanisileyo kwiSixeko ngexa le magazini isiya kushicilelwa. Okuphambili okufunyenweyo ibikukuba i-COCT ayiyigqithisi kakuhle ingxelo ngedata yayo kwaye oko bekubuyisela emva le projekthi. Ukujongana nokusetyenziswa kwarhoqo kwedata kunyanzelise izinto ezininzi. Kwicala eliphezulu, umzekelo we-COCT ububona okubi kuko konke, kukho no-Day Zero olandelayo malunga nenyanga emva kwemihla eyayichaziwe – olu luthungelwano olukhuseleke kakhulu kwiinjongo zocwangciso.

    Iqela lika-Andries (abafundi bazohlula bangamagqiza omsebenzi amalunga nesibhozo kwiqela ngalinye) baze bafumanisa ukuba amanzi awafikeleli emadamini ngokufanelekileyo kwaze oko kwabangela izizathu ezohlukeneyo, ukuquka imbalela kwakunye nongenelelo lwezityalo ezingeyonkulelane yeli lizwe.

     

    U-Fortunate uphawule ukuba ingxelo yedata ibizishiya ngaphandle iidesimali, into echaphazela kakhulu ufundo oluyinene. Ebonelisekile ngokuncitshiswa kwezinto ezivuzayo nendlela isixeko esiwenze ngayo umsebenzi waso ekwehliseni ilahleko yaya kuma-20% kodwa bengonwabanga kakhulu nomba wokuba kuphela ngama-20% elahleko yamanzi kwizinto ezivuzayo nokuthetha ukuba i-10 litres yamanzi kumntu ngamnye ngosuku.

     

    “Zizinto ezinjalo ezihleli phaya, nongakwaziyo ukuzivelisa ngaphandle kokuba unezakhono ezi sizifundayo ngoku ,” utshilo uFortunate. “Ulwazi ekuphela kwalo onalo ngaphandle koku kukuba ihlumela lakho ledolophu lisebenzisa amanzi angaka futhi elo nani alinantsingiselo kuwe, kodwa ngento yonke enjengonikezelo nemiba yamabango xa ihlangene, ithetha ibali elinyanzelisa kakhulu.”

    U-Sharné ukhombise okunye okungekho mgaqweni kwindlela yogqithiso lwengxelo yamahlumela edolophu. “Kwiminyaka emininzi, iSixeko sasinamahlumela amaninzi kwaye kubanzima ukuthelekisa idata yonyaka, kuba ngamanye amaxesha, amahlumela edolophu adityanisiwe ngamanye amaxesha angadityaniswa.” Abafundi babhadle ngokwaneleyo ekuqondeni igravithi yezinto abaziphandayo. Bayazi ngabanye abanezo zakhono nempembelelo ebanzi yomonakalo onokubangelwa yi-arhente enentlondi eqhuba uphando olukwanjalo ngeenjongo ezinolunya.

    “Kufuneka siqonde ngoxanduva esinalo,” utshilo uFortunate.
    “Urhulumente waseNtshona Koloni unoxanduva lokubona okubi kwinto yonke, kuba abantu babonyulile ekubeni bajonge okungcono kwiphondo kodwa into enye abayenzayo kukuboyikisa, ngokwangoku lowo ngumzekelo owenziwayo lowo. Kodwa ngokwenza oko, kufuneka balandele okusesikweni okubonakalayo, njengokufundwa kweemitha zamanzi, okanye oku kujongela phantsi iindlela zokoyikisa kuba ngoku, ngaphezu kwakuqala, ungafumana iinombolo uze ungavumelani nazo. Kubantu abanedata, olo xanduva lubuyela ekuthetheni nabantu njengabantu abadala.”

    Mhlawumbi oko ingayimpembelelo enkulu yokwanda kwezakhono zokuhlahlela idata: Iya kuxhobisa abantu abaninzi ekusebenziseni idata ngendlela ekrelekrele. Ukuba nolwazi ngemeko ethile kuphela kwento esinokuyibuza njengabemi, kuba olo lwazi luya kusenza sifikelele kwisigqibo. Ngaphandle kolo lwazi, ungumhambi kwinkqubo; ungamamela nje kuphela into oyixelelwayo.

    Enye yeengcebiso ze-EDSA ngexa isebenza kule projekthi kukunikezela wonke umntu idata. “Ukuba wena, njengomnini wekhaya, ungazifundela ngokwakho iimitha zamanzi uze uzigqithise nge-app, iSixeko sinedata engcono yokusetyenziswa kwamanzi kengoko umfanekiso ocacileyo wokuba amanzi ayaphi,” ucacisile u-Andries.

    Sive lukhulu malunga nendlela ezizicingela zodwa ii-millenial, kodwa ukuchitha ixesha nabemi abasakhulayo baseMzantsi Afrika ude ubenze ukuba bafake izigwebo malunga nendlela izizukulu ezidala ezenza ngayo izinto, oko kuvelisa ulutsha olunengqiqo enkulu.

    “Kunzima ukuthelekisa izizukulwana zanamhlanje noxanduva lwazo kunye nolo lwabazali bethu. Kuvakala kuthunuka emphufumlweni, kodwa ngamandla amakhulu kuza uxanduva olukhulu. Ubomi bethu bunethemba ngendlela abazali bethu nootatomkhulu bethu abangasoze bayicinge,” utshilo u-Andries xa ebuzwa ngokubanzi malunga ngokungaphumeleli kwezinto ezenziwa ngabadala bakokwabo.
    “Ndingaya efowunini yam ndibone ukuba izihamba-ndlela ukuba akukuhlanga kwaye kuza kuthatha ixesha elide ukungena emotweni xa ndiya emsebenzini kunokuhamba ngeenyawo. Oko zange yaba yinto ekufuneka beyikhethile abazali bam.

    “Ngokunokwam, ndiyanqwena ukuncama okuthile ndihlawulele zonke ezo zinto. Kufuneka uqaphele ungavumi ukuba amaxesha ayatshintsha. Ngexesha le-Dark Ages, wawungakwazi ukuhamba phandle emzini wakho ngaphandle komntu oza kuwe eza kukubulala; yindlela eyohluke kakhulu yokubulawa kungathathelwa ngqalelo okuyimfihlo kuwe. Kufuneka nje sihlengahlengise.”

    Iqela elisemva kwe-EDSA liqela elalisakuba ziingcaphephe ze-actuaries, ii-programmer nabacaluli bamashishini abafuna ukunikezela okuthile. U-Shaun Dippnall uyi-defacto figurehead, futhi uza kwiprojekthi ngendlela ye-Yunivesithi yase-KZN apho wayefundisa i-actuarial, ne-CV entle edwelise u-Old Mutual njengesona sikhundla sakhe esiphezulu.

     

    “Kuhamba kakuhle kakhulu. Besine-100 ekuqaleni kwaze kwahamba ababini kuphela beyokufuna imisebenzi abayithandayo. Amandla akhona ebantwini. I-KPI yethu (key performance indicator) kukuba bangaphi na abantwana abaselebhu ngokuhlwa kwangolweSihlanu; luphawu olukhulu lokuthatha inxaxheba. Futhi kuhlala kugcwele rhoqo ngoolweSihlanu emva kwentsimbi yesihlanu (5 pm),” utshilo u-Shaun. “Iprojekthi yentlekele yamanzi eKapa yaziswa kwaye ibukeka kakuhle, neziphumo kwakunye negqiqo entle.”

    Amaqela angamashumi amabini agqithise ingxelo yokufunyenweyo kwiprojekthi yentlekele yamanzi aze ahlanganisa oko kwaba yingxelo enye eya kunikezelwa kwiSixeko. Ingxaki elandelayo kubafundi kukwazi ukufunda ngoomatshini, baze bangene nzulu kwiprojekthi yobuchule yeeveki ezintdandathu ukususela ekupheleni kwinyanga kaJulayi. Emva koko, ngamava eenyanga ezintathu.

    “Sixakekile sithetha namashishini aseMzantsi Afrika ukuba asixhase kwiprojekthi apho anokuthatha abafundi abalishumi ekusombululeni ingxaki okanye bayenze le projekthi kwiindawo abasebenza kuzo. Ngalo ndlela, kukho ithemba elikhulu lokuba abafundi bangenza kakuhle futhi bafumane umsebenzi.”

    Indawana nje enzima kukuqinisekisa ukuba ithuba lomsebenzi lihambelana nezona zakhono ezifunekayo kumashishini oMzantsi Afrika. Oku yeyona ndawo enzima kuba onke amashishini aqhuba kakuhle kufuneka ethathe inxaxheba.

    Kodwa ke ngunyaka wokuqala lo ogqityiweyo. Unyaka wesibini uqala ukuqesha ngoJulayo kwaye umatshini we-hype uze ngamandla. “Sifumana ii-imeyile yonke imihla xa izicelo ziqala ezika-2019,” utshilo u-Shaun. I-EDSA icinga ukuba ingafumana ubuninzi bezicelo ezingama-10 000 kwaye imbono yangoku kukufumana iinkampani ezingezinye zixhase abafundi abangabanye, ngethemba lokufumana amanye amakhulu-khulu ukuze sandise le nkqubo ifikelele eGoli.

    “Senze ngabom ukuba sisokolise futhi abantu abaninzi bothukile,” ucacise watsho malunga nekharityhulam. “Ngaphakathi koko, kuye kwafuneka sifezekise iqela labantu futhi sibanike i-programming eyongeziweyo kuba oko kunganzima. Kukho malunga nabafundi abangama-20 abongezelelwe ngezinye izinto ze-programming kangangeenyanga. Ezinye iinguqulelo yaba kukwenza amaxesha eebhloko zeenyanga ezine endaweni yezintathu, ukuze bangabulaleki kakhulu ngumsebenzi.”

    I-EDSA yinkqubo eyilwe ngobukrelekrele obukhulu futhi ineziphumo eziphathekayo kwawona mashishini omsebenzi athandwa kakhulu ngokwangoku. Kodwa yintoni abafundi abanqwenela ukuyifumana kuyo, kwaye balubona njani ukhondo lomsebenzi (career) wabo ngaphaya kwale nkqubo?

    U-Sharné unezinto ezimbini engqondweni yakhe emva kwe-EDSA. “Ndisenokuya eyunivesithi ndifunde, okanye ndisebenzele inkampani njengenzululwazi yedata. Kodwa ke ndim ekufuneka enze isigqibo ngexesha lesi sifundo kuba konke oku kuxhomekeka ekubeni yeyiphi inkampani endithunyelwa kuyo, kuba kutheni. Ndikwafuna nokwakha izinto kuba oko kubanceda kakhulu abantu. Bendiyinxenye yeProjekthi kwiminyaka emibini edlulileyo ethe yanceda abantu abakhulelweyo basemaphandleni ukuba ubonwe umzila wabo xa beza kufumana umntwana.”

    U-Andries yena iliso lakhe likwinto enomdla owodwa: isikhundla e-Google DeepMind. “Ndingathanda ukuya kufunda kakuhle ngoomatshini, futhi ndenze i-algorithms okanye uphuhliso lwe-algorithms. Ngokwangoku, sisekwicala lomsebenzisi wezo-algorithms nokuyiqonda, kodwa ndifuna ukuba kwelinye icala ndizakhe.”

    U-Fortunate ufuna ukunceda ngemveliso yokutya kubantu abasokolayo abangenanto kwakunye nophuhliso loluntu kwimimandla.

    Ithemba apha, eneneni, lelokuba zonke ezi bhethi ziya kusibhatala kwaye uMzantsi Afrika ungavela njengendawo entsha yokufukamisa iinzululwazi zedata ezinempembelelo enkulu.