Apollo 11: one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind

At 10:56 pm EDT on 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the Moon. This image was taken from the telecast of the event, watched by people around the world. The pictures were taken by the Apollo lunar surface camera, the black
Date:20 July 2009 Tags:, , , , ,

Nasa has released newly restored video from the 20 July 1969 live television broadcast of the Apollo 11 moonwalk. The release commemorates the 40th anniversary of the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon.

The initial video release, part of a larger Apollo 11 moonwalk restoration project, features 15 key moments from the historic lunar excursion of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin. To watch the video clip of Neil Armstrong climbing down the lunar module ladder to the lunar surface, click here

A team of Apollo-era engineers who helped produce the 1969 live broadcast of the moonwalk acquired the best of the broadcast-format video from a variety of sources for the restoration effort. These included a copy of a tape recorded at Nasa’s Sydney, Australia, video switching centre, where down-linked television from Parkes and Honeysuckle Creek was received for transmission to the US; original broadcast tapes from the CBS News Archive recorded via direct microwave and landline feeds from Nasa’s Johnson Space Centre in Houston; and kinescopes found in film vaults at Johnson that had not been viewed for 36 years.

“The restoration is ongoing and may produce even better video,” said Richard Nafzger, an engineer at Nasa’s Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland, who oversaw television processing at the ground tracking sites during Apollo 11. “The restoration project is scheduled to be completed in September and will provide the public, future historians, and the National Archives with the highest quality video of this historic event.”

Nasa contracted with Lowry Digital of Burbank, California, which specialises in restoring aging Hollywood films and video, to take the highest quality video available from these recordings, select the best for digitisation, and significantly enhance the video using the company’s proprietary software technology and other restoration techniques.

Under the initial effort, Lowry restored 15 scenes representing the most significant moments of the three and a half hours that Armstrong and Aldrin spent on the lunar surface. Nasa released the video Thursday at a news conference at the Newseum in Washington.

On 20 July 1969, as Armstrong made the short step off the ladder of the Lunar Excursion Module onto the powdery lunar surface (to watch the video of Neil Armstrong climbing down the lunar module ladder to the lunar surface, |click here|), a global community of hundreds of millions of people witnessed one of humankind’s most remarkable achievements live on television.

The black and white images of Armstrong and Aldrin bounding around the Moon were provided by a single small video camera aboard the lunar module. The camera used a non-standard scan format that commercial television could not broadcast.

Nasa used a scan converter to optically and electronically adapt these images to a standard US broadcast TV signal. The tracking stations converted the signals and transmitted them using microwave links, Intelsat communications satellites, and AT&T analogue landlines to Mission Control in Houston. By the time the images appeared on international television, they were substantially degraded.

At tracking stations in Australia and the United States, engineers recorded data beamed to Earth from the lunar module onto one-inch telemetry tapes. The tapes were recorded as a backup if the live transmission failed or if the Apollo Project needed the data later. Each tape contained 14 tracks of data, including bio-medical, voice, and other information; one channel was reserved for video.

A three-year search for these original telemetry tapes was unsuccessful. A final report on the investigation is expected to be completed in the near future and will be publicly released at that time.

Related material
* Apollo 11 video: launch, landing and return
* Restored Apollo 11 moonwalk video: see the first steps taken on the Moon as people on Earth saw them on TV.
* Video of the Eagle landing on the Moon.
* Apollo 11 conversations Earth didn’t hear now online.
* The untold story of Apollo 11 – in the words of those who were there
* For a copy of all 15 newly restored scenes from the Apollo 11 restoration effort, |click here|

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