B) Close-up in 3D: Transition from inner umbra region to outer penumbra region in one sunspot

Date:9 February 2010 Tags:

These four simulations show the transition zone from the umbra (inner region) at right in each image to the penumbra (outer region) at left for a single sunspot. The sunspot's complex processes are modelled in 3D, giving scientists their first glimpse below the visible surface.

* t (elapsed time) is shown in minutes
* 5 Mm: length of bar = 5 000 km

Technical data: Quantities shown are in the photosphere. Top left: Vertical magnetic field component (white: upward, black: downward); Top right: Field inclination (black: vertical, white: horizontal); Bottom left: Radial flow velocity (red: outflows, blue: inflows); Bottom right: Vertical flow velocity (red: downflows, blue: upflows).

©UCAR, animation courtesy Matthias Rempel, NCAR

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